BRB system stability considering frame out-of-plane loading and deformation zone
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A simple and economical design approach is described for a BRB system, consisting of a BRB within a steel frame, subject to in-plane and out-of-plane seismic displacements. The approach avoids out-of-plane system or brace instability while allowing large frame out-of-plane deformations and desirable BRB axial performance. It also limits the compressive/tension force ratio. It is based on the simple concept that a brace will be stable with two moment-releases (hinges) but that an out-of-plane buckling mechanism may occur with more than two. The hinges are detailed as specified deformation zones (SDZs) at the brace ends. The hinges use a plate which can yield about its weak axis during out-of-plane movement. Simple methods to assess the stability of the brace itself (between hinges) are developed, an example is provided illustrating how the monotonic deformation demand of the simple plate hinge can be assessed, and detailing recommendations are made to restrict the deformation of the boundary elements at the brace ends.